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荔枝落果研究进展
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【篇名】:荔枝落果研究进展
【作者】蔡小林;潘介春;周煜棉;刘红红
【作者单位】广西大学 农学院
【来源】江西农业学报, 2017, 29(1):26-31
【中文关键词】荔枝;落果;果柄结构;激素;矿质元素
【中文摘要】荔枝( Litchic hinensis Sonn)是亚热带重要的常绿经济果树,但是荔枝落果现象非常严重,平均最终坐果率5%左右。综述了前人的研究结果,认为荔枝落果依品种不同有3~4次高峰;荔枝开花习性的缺陷是落果的主要原因,而胚与胚乳及果柄发育的不完善和矿质元素、碳水化合物、激素及多胺含量的不充足是落果的内在原因,不利环境因素(低温寡照、阴雨连绵)进一步诱发荔枝幼果脱落;有关荔枝落果分子生物学研究较少,相关研究也不够深入;培养健壮充实的结果母枝是保证花穗正常发育,减少早期落果的基础,花果期进行适当的环割、环剥及恰当的水肥管理和喷施植物生长调节剂是减少中后期落果的有力手段。并根据现阶段荔枝落果研究中存在的问题,提出了相应的建议与解决办法,以期为荔枝落果的进一步研究提供参考。
【英文关键词】Litchi;Fruit drop;Carpopodium structure;Hormone;Mineral element
【英文摘要】Litchi ( Litch i chinensis Sonn) is an important subtropical evergreen and commercial fruit tree.However, litchi fruit shedding is very serious, and the final average fruit-setting rate is only about 5%.This paper summarizes the previous re-search results.The fruit shedding of various litchi varieties has three or four peaks .The main reason for the fruit drop of litchi is the defect of its flowering habit;the internal reasons for it are the imperfect development of embryo , endosperm and carpopodium, and the insufficient contents of mineral elements, carbohydrate, hormone and polyamine;the adverse environmental factors (low temperature, few sunlight, lasting wet weather) further induce the young fruit drop of litchi.Few studies on litchi fruit drop have been done by means of molecular biological techniques , and the related researches are not too deep.Cultivating healthy, strong and fully-developed fruiting mother branches is the basis of ensuring the normal development of panicles and reducing the fruit drop at earlier stage.The proper ringing and girdling, the appropriate water and fertilizer management, and spraying plant growth regulators in flowering and fruiting period are the powerful means to decrease the fruit drop in mid-late period of fruit development. According to the existent problems in the present litchi fruit drop researches , this paper proposes corresponding suggestions and solutions, for the sake of providing reference for the further research of litchi fruit drop .
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